The word "socialism" often implies two quite different phenomena:
Classical period[ edit ] Early animosity towards Jews[ edit ] Louis H. Feldman argues that "we must take issue with the communis sensus that the pagan writers are predominantly anti-Semitic". Feldman concedes that after Manetho "the picture usually painted is one of universal and virulent anti-Judaism".
The first clear examples of anti-Jewish sentiment can be traced back to Alexandria in the 3rd century BCE. Manethoan Egyptian priest and historian of that time, wrote scathingly of the Jews and his themes are repeated in the works of ChaeremonLysimachusPoseidoniusApollonius Molonand in Apion and Tacitus.
Hecataeus of Abderaa Greek historian of the early third century BCE, wrote that Moses "in remembrance of the exile of his people, instituted for them a misanthropic and inhospitable way of life". Manethoan Egyptian historian, wrote that the Jews were expelled Egyptian lepers who had been taught by Moses "not to adore the gods.
Agatharchides of Cnidus wrote about the "ridiculous practices" of the Jews and of the "absurdity of their Law", and how Ptolemy Lagus was able to invade Jerusalem in BC because its inhabitants were observing the Sabbath.
Statements exhibiting prejudice towards Jews and their religion can also be found in the works of a few pagan Greek and Roman writers,  but the earliest occurrence of antisemitism has been the subject of debate among scholars, largely because different Regulated hatred and other essays use different definitions of antisemitism.
The terms " religious antisemitism " and " anti-Judaism " are sometimes used to refer to animosity towards Judaism as a religion rather than to Jews defined as an ethnic or racial group.
Roman Empire[ edit ] Relations between the Jews in Judea and the occupying Roman Empire were antagonistic from the very start and resulted in several rebellions.
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According to the Roman historian SuetoniusTiberius tried to suppress all foreign religions. In the case of Jews, he sent young Jewish men, under the pretence of military service, to provinces noted for their unhealthy climate.
He dismissed all other Jews from the city, under threat of life slavery for non-compliance. Four thousand were sent to Sardinia but more, who were unwilling to become soldiers, were punished.
Cassius Dio reports that Tiberius banished most of the Jews, who had been attempting to convert Romans to their religion.
The Jerusalem Talmud relates that, following Bar Kokhba's revolt — CEthe Romans destroyed very many Jews, "killing until their horses were submerged in blood to their nostrils". Some accommodation, in fact, was later made with Judaism, and the Jews of the Diaspora had privileges that others did not.
Unlike other subjects of the Roman Empire, they had the right to maintain their religion and were not expected to accommodate themselves to local customs.
And although Hadrian outlawed circumcision as a mutilation normally visited on people unable to consent, he later exempted the Jews. It has been argued that European antisemitism has its roots in Roman policy.
Antisemitism in the New Testament Although the majority of the New Testament was written, ostensibly, by Jews who became followers of Jesusthere are a number of passages in the New Testament that some see as antisemitic, or that have been used for antisemitic purposes, including: You are of your father the devil, and your will is to do your father's desires.
He was a murderer from the beginning, and has nothing to do with the truth, because there is no truth in him. In an essay regarding antisemitism, biblical scholar Amy-Jill Levine argues that this passage has caused more Jewish suffering throughout history than any other in the New Testament. As your fathers did, so do you.
Which of the prophets did your fathers not persecute? And they killed those who announced beforehand the coming of the Righteous One, whom you have now betrayed and murdered, you who received the law as delivered by angels and did not keep it.
However, the relationship between the followers of the new religion Islam and the Jews of Medina later became bitter. At this point the Quran instructs Muhammad to change the direction of prayer from Jerusalem to Meccaand from this point on, the tone of the verses of the Quran become increasingly hostile towards Jewry.
Antisemitism in early Christianity Attacks on synagogues[ edit ] When Christianity became the state religion of Rome in the 4th century, Jews became the object of religious intolerance and political oppression.
Christian literature began to display extreme hostility towards Jews, which occasionally resulted in attacks and the burning of synagogues. This hostility was reflected in the edicts both of church councils and state laws.
In the early 4th century, intermarriage between unconverted Jews and Christians was prohibited under the provisions of the Synod of Elvira.
The conversion of Christians to Judaism was outlawed. Religious services were regulated, congregations restricted, but Jews were allowed to enter Jerusalem on Tisha B'Avthe anniversary of the destruction of the Temple. Discrimination became worse in the 5th century. The edicts of the Codex Theodosianus barred Jews from the civil service, the army and the legal profession.
Synagogues were confiscated and old synagogues could be repaired only if they were in danger of collapse. Synagogues fell into ruin or were converted to churches.
Other synagogues were confiscated: Urfa inseveral in Judea between andConstantinople in andAntioch inVannes inDiyarbakir in Terracina inCagliari in and Palermo in In the context of Christianity, deicide refers to the responsibility for the death of Jesus.
The accusation of Jews in deicide has been the most powerful warrant for antisemitism by Christians.Polygamy.
Polygamy as a doctrine was introduced into the LDS Church by Joseph Smith. The practice continued after Joseph’s death in , and was publicly announced in , five years after the Saints arrived in Utah. [The following is a transcription of Igor Shafarevich's The Socialist ph-vs.com work was originally published in Russian in France under the title Sotsializm kak iavlenie mirovoi istorii in , by YMCA Press.
An English translation was subsequently published in by Harper & Row. G. K.
Chesterton’s collection What’s Wrong With The World surprisingly does not open with “this is going to take more than one book.”. In fact, he is quite to-the-point about exactly what he thinks the problem is: Now, to reiterate my title, this is what is wrong.
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Materials for the Construction of Shakespeare's Morals, the Stoic Legacy to the Renaissance Major Ethical Authorities. Indexed According to Virtues, Vices, and Characters from the Plays, as well as Topics in Swift, Pope, and Wordsworth.
Books: Cicero's De Officiis, Seneca's Moral Essays and Moral Epistles, Plutarch's Lives, Montaigne's Essays. Note: The following post accompanies Takuan Seiyo’s latest ph-vs.com are being kept “sticky” until tonight. Scroll down for other posts that have appeared since Wednesday. Certain posts at Gates of Vienna, among them those by Takuan Seiyo, tend to attract the attention and comments of people who are preoccupied with the Jews.