Includes only "free" elections. Voter turnout varies considerably between nations. Confusingly, some of the factors that cause internal differences do not seem to apply on a global level. For instance, nations with better-educated populaces do not have higher turnouts.
History[ edit ] Article Two of the United States Constitution originally established the method of presidential elections, including the Electoral College.
This was a result of a compromise between those constitutional framers who wanted the Congress to choose the president, and those who preferred a national popular vote. With the ratification of the 23rd Amendment to the Constitution inthe District of Columbia is also granted a number of electors, equal to the number of those held by the least populous state.
Constitutionally, the manner for choosing electors is determined within each state by its legislature; Article II, Section 1, Clause 2 states that each state shall appoint electors "in such Manner as the Legislature Thereof May Direct. Inonly five of the 16 states chose electors by a popular vote; byafter the rise of Jacksonian democracythe proportion of states that chose electors by popular vote had sharply risen to 18 out of 24 states.
The candidate with the highest number of votes provided it was a majority of the electoral votes became the president, and the second-place candidate became the vice president. This presented a problem during the presidential election of when Aaron Burr received the same number of electoral votes as Thomas Jefferson and challenged Jefferson's election to the office.
In the end, Jefferson was chosen as the president because of Alexander Hamilton 's influence in the House of Representatives. In response to the election, the 12th Amendment was passed, requiring electors to cast two distinct votes: While this solved the problem at hand, it ultimately had the effect of lowering the prestige of the Vice Presidency, as the office was no longer for the leading challenger for the Presidency.
The separate ballots for President and Vice President became something of a moot issue later in the 19th century when it became the norm for popular elections to determine a state's Electoral College delegation.
Electors chosen this way are pledged to vote for a particular presidential and vice presidential candidate offered by the same political party.
So, while the Constitution says that the President and Vice President are chosen separately, in practice they are chosen together. The 12th Amendment also established rules when no candidate wins a majority vote in the Electoral College.
In the presidential election ofAndrew Jackson received a pluralitybut not a majority, of electoral votes cast. The election was thrown to the House of Representativesand John Quincy Adams was elected to the presidency.
A deep rivalry resulted between Andrew Jackson and House Speaker Henry Claywho had also been a candidate in the election.
Sinceaside from the occasional "faithless elector," the popular vote determines the winner of a presidential election by determining the electoral vote, as each state or district's popular vote determines its electoral college vote.
Although the nationwide popular vote does not directly determine the winner of a presidential election, it does strongly correlate with who is the victor. In 53 of the 58 total elections held so far about 91 percentthe winner of the national popular vote has also carried the Electoral College vote.
The winners of the nationwide popular vote and the Electoral College vote differ only in close elections. In highly competitive elections, candidates focus on turning out their vote in the contested swing states critical to winning an electoral college majority, so they do not try to maximize their popular vote by real or fraudulent vote increases in one-party areas.
In the election, Jackson won the popular vote, but no one received the majority of electoral votes. According to the 12th Amendment in the Constitution, the House of Representatives must choose the president out of the top 3 people in the election. Clay had come fourth, so he threw his support to Adams, who then won.
Because Adams later named Clay his Secretary of State, Jackson's supporters claimed that Adams gained the presidency by making a deal with Clay. Charges of a "corrupt bargain" followed Adams through his term. Comparison of the popular vote totals since Republican Democrat All other candidates together Then in,andthe winner of electoral vote lost the popular vote outright.
Numerous constitutional amendments have been submitted seeking to replace the Electoral College with a direct popular vote, but none has ever successfully passed both Houses of Congress.
Another alternate proposal is the National Popular Vote Interstate Compactan interstate compact whereby individual participating states agree to allocate their electors based on the winner of the national popular vote instead of just their respective statewide results.
The presidential election day was established on a Tuesday in the month of November because of the factors involved weather, harvests and worship. When voters used to travel to the polls by horse, Tuesday was an ideal day because it allowed people to worship on Sunday, ride to their county seat on Monday, and vote on Tuesday—all before market day, Wednesday.
The month of November also fits nicely between harvest time and harsh winter weather, which could be especially bad to people traveling by horse and buggy.
With better technology and the 20th Amendment being passed, presidential inaugurations were moved to noon on January 20—allowing presidents to start their duties sooner. Thus, this began a trend of presidential candidates declaring their intentions to run as early as the Spring of the previous calendar year so they can start raising and spending the money needed for their nationwide campaign.
Since the election of his successor, John Adamsinall winners of U. Third parties have taken second place only twice, in and The last time a third independent candidate achieved significant success although still finishing in third place was inand the last time a third-party candidate received any electoral votes not from faithless electors was in Eligibility requirements[ edit ] The hand-written copy of the natural-born-citizen clause as it appeared in Article Two of the United States Constitution stipulates that for a person to serve as President, the individual must be a natural-born citizen of the United Statesat least 35 years old, and a resident of the United States for a period of no less than 14 years.
A candidate may start running his or her campaign early before turning 35 years old or completing 14 years of residency, but must meet the age and residency requirements by Inauguration Day.The study aimed at identifying factors influencing voter turnout in local government council INTRODUCTION Voter turnout can simply refer to the percentage of eligible voters who cast a ballot in an election elections and come up with solutions to address this trend by focusing on the factors that influence one’s decision to either.
Five Studies on the Causes and Consequences of Voter Turnout The Harvard community has made this article openly available. Please share how this access benefits you. As a follow-up to Tuesday’s post about the majority-minority public schools in Oslo, the following brief account reports the latest statistics on the cultural enrichment of schools in Austria.
Vienna is the most fully enriched location, and seems to be in roughly the same situation as Oslo. Many thanks to Hermes for the translation from ph-vs.com The island of Puerto Rico (formerly Porto Rico) is the most easterly of the Greater Antilles group of the West Indies island chain.
Located more than a thousand miles southeast of Miami, Puerto Rico is bounded on the north by the Atlantic Ocean, on the east by the Virgin Passage (which separates it from the Virgin Islands), on the south by the Caribbean Sea, and on the west by the Mona Passage.
Start studying Factors that Influence Voter Turnout and Choice. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.
Democracy is an ideal many people have struggled for. Yet, different forms of democracy attract different forms of corrupting influences and challenges. This article attempts to explore these issues.